Tbi dating disability dallas
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, and its global burden is increasing .Other ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions to the brain, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage or ischemia–reperfusion after cardiac arrest, are also associated with high mortality and devastating sequelae [5,6].Given the severity and long-term consequences and costs of brain damage from many different etiologies, strategies for neuroprotection are of obvious importance.In this review, based on expert opinion and nonsystematic literature review, we provide an up-to-date summary of the current evidence for strategies to protect the brain from secondary insults and highlight areas for future experimental and clinical research.More recent data indicated that intravenous alteplase was beneficial when given within 4.5 hours of onset in nondiabetic patients 4.5 hours or those for whom systemic intravenous thrombolysis is contraindicated [11,14].Recent data on intra-arterial strategies as an alternative or supplement to intravenous thrombolysis in tissue plasminogen activator-eligible patients have been mixed [13,15-17], but they indicate potential benefit in stroke with proximal large vessel occlusions.We have focused on general concepts in selected pathophysiological events, because complete coverage of all acute brain injuries is not feasible in one manuscript, and we restricted our analysis to adult patients.
Nevertheless, in the case of epidural hematoma management, shortening the time from trauma to surgery was associated with improved outcomes in a prospective cohort study .
The deleterious effects of hypoxia and arterial hypotension in the early phases after TBI have been identified in several analyses.
Data from the US Traumatic Coma Data Bank collected from 1983 to 1988 showed that among 717 TBI admissions, hypoxia (defined as arterial oxygen tension 10 g/dl) .
Risks associated with reperfusion therapies, apart from failure to reperfuse, include intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), ischemia–reperfusion injury and catheterization complications.
A large-scale randomized trial indicated that intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase) administered within 3 hours of ischemic stroke onset was associated with significantly improved functional outcomes when compared with placebo, but with an increased risk of ICH .The time course over which these effects occur may be longer than assumed previously, potentially providing a wider time window for interventions.